By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process. Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.
Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory. In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.
Looking at the literature review in this way emphasizes a few things. First, it is extremely important to start with an outline of the main points that you want to make, organized in the order that you want to make them. The basic structure of your argument, then, should be apparent from the outline itself. Second, it is important to emphasize the structure of your argument in your writing. One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it.
Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams Williams offers one explanation of this phenomenon. An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams We used a method based on the one used by Williams Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct.
In other words, your literature review must be balanced. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it. However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory.
However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer. The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables.
The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behaviour during the emergency. If your hypothesis expected more statistically significant results, don't omit the findings if they failed to support your predictions.
Don't ignore negative results. Just because a result failed to support your hypothesis, it does not mean it is not important. Results that do not support your original hypothesis can be just as informative as results that do. Even if your study did not support your hypothesis, it does not mean that the conclusions you reach are not useful. While your study might not have supported your original predictions, your finding can provide important inspiration for future explorations into a topic.
You might not have supported your hypothesis, but your findings may help you develop another hypothesis to explore in future studies. Summarize Your Results Do not include the raw data in the results section. Remember, you are summarizing the results, not reporting them in full detail. The results section should be a relatively brief overview of your findings, not a complete presentation of every single number and calculation.
If you choose, you can create a supplemental online archive where other researchers can access the raw data if they choose to do so. Include Tables and Figures Your results section should include both text and illustrations. Therefore, it is crucial to know how to caption the figures and refer to them within the text of the Results section. The most important advice one can give here as well as throughout the paper is to check the requirements and standards of the journal to which you are submitting your work.
Regardless of which format you use, the figures should be placed in the order they are referenced in the Results section and be as clear and easy to understand as possible. If there are multiple variables being considered within one or more research questions , it can be a good idea to split these up into separate figures.
Subsequently, these can be referenced and analyzed under separate headings and paragraphs in the text. To create a caption, consider the research question being asked and change it into a phrase.
The content and layout of this section will be determined by the specific area of research, the design of the study and its particular methodologies, and the guidelines of the target journal and its editors. However, the following steps can be used to compose the results of most scientific research studies and are essential for researchers who are new to preparing a manuscript for publication or who need a reminder of how to construct the Results section.
Step 1: Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study. The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will provide sound examples of successful approaches.
Note length limitations on restrictions on content. Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses. Catalogue your findings—use subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. This will help you avoid excessive and peripheral details as you write and also help your reader understand and remember your findings.
Create appendices that might interest specialists but prove too long or distracting for other readers. However, the act of articulating the results helps you to understand the problem from within, to break it into pieces, and to view the research problem from various perspectives.
The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported. Be concise, using non-textual elements, such as figures and tables, if appropriate, to present results more effectively.
In deciding what data to describe in your results section, you must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research paper from any raw data or other material that could be included as an appendix.
In general, raw data should not be included in the main text of your paper unless requested to do so by your professor. Avoid providing data that is not critical to answering the research question. The background information you described in the introduction section should provide the reader with any additional context or explanation needed to understand the results.
A good rule is to always re-read the background section of your paper after you have written up your results to ensure that the reader has enough context to understand the results [and, later, how you interpreted the results in the discussion section of your paper]. Bates College;Burton, Neil et al. Doing Your Education Research Project.
Department of Biology. Bates College. Structure and Writing Style I. Structure and Approach For most research paper formats, there are two ways of presenting and organizing the results. Present the results followed by a short explanation of the findings. For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your findings. It is correct to point this out in the results section. However, speculating as to why this correlation exists, and offering a hypothesis about what may be happening, belongs in the discussion section of your paper.
Save all this for the next section of your paper, although where appropriate, you should compare or contrast specific results to those found in other studies [e. Regardless of placement, each non-textual element must be numbered consecutively and complete with caption [caption goes under the figure, table, chart, etc. One excellent option is to use a professional academic editing service such as Wordvice. An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e.