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Writing research results section paper in word

  • 05.02.2019
Writing research results section paper in word

By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process. Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.

Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory. In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.

Looking at the literature review in this way emphasizes a few things. First, it is extremely important to start with an outline of the main points that you want to make, organized in the order that you want to make them. The basic structure of your argument, then, should be apparent from the outline itself. Second, it is important to emphasize the structure of your argument in your writing. One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it.

Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams Williams offers one explanation of this phenomenon. An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams We used a method based on the one used by Williams Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct.

In other words, your literature review must be balanced. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it. However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory.

However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer. The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables.

The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behaviour during the emergency. If your hypothesis expected more statistically significant results, don't omit the findings if they failed to support your predictions.

Don't ignore negative results. Just because a result failed to support your hypothesis, it does not mean it is not important. Results that do not support your original hypothesis can be just as informative as results that do. Even if your study did not support your hypothesis, it does not mean that the conclusions you reach are not useful. While your study might not have supported your original predictions, your finding can provide important inspiration for future explorations into a topic.

You might not have supported your hypothesis, but your findings may help you develop another hypothesis to explore in future studies. Summarize Your Results Do not include the raw data in the results section. Remember, you are summarizing the results, not reporting them in full detail. The results section should be a relatively brief overview of your findings, not a complete presentation of every single number and calculation.

If you choose, you can create a supplemental online archive where other researchers can access the raw data if they choose to do so. Include Tables and Figures Your results section should include both text and illustrations. Therefore, it is crucial to know how to caption the figures and refer to them within the text of the Results section. The most important advice one can give here as well as throughout the paper is to check the requirements and standards of the journal to which you are submitting your work.

Regardless of which format you use, the figures should be placed in the order they are referenced in the Results section and be as clear and easy to understand as possible. If there are multiple variables being considered within one or more research questions , it can be a good idea to split these up into separate figures.

Subsequently, these can be referenced and analyzed under separate headings and paragraphs in the text. To create a caption, consider the research question being asked and change it into a phrase.

The content and layout of this section will be determined by the specific area of research, the design of the study and its particular methodologies, and the guidelines of the target journal and its editors. However, the following steps can be used to compose the results of most scientific research studies and are essential for researchers who are new to preparing a manuscript for publication or who need a reminder of how to construct the Results section.

Step 1: Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study. The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will provide sound examples of successful approaches.

Note length limitations on restrictions on content. Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses. Catalogue your findings—use subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. This will help you avoid excessive and peripheral details as you write and also help your reader understand and remember your findings.

Create appendices that might interest specialists but prove too long or distracting for other readers. However, the act of articulating the results helps you to understand the problem from within, to break it into pieces, and to view the research problem from various perspectives.

The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported. Be concise, using non-textual elements, such as figures and tables, if appropriate, to present results more effectively.

In deciding what data to describe in your results section, you must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research paper from any raw data or other material that could be included as an appendix.

In general, raw data should not be included in the main text of your paper unless requested to do so by your professor. Avoid providing data that is not critical to answering the research question. The background information you described in the introduction section should provide the reader with any additional context or explanation needed to understand the results.

A good rule is to always re-read the background section of your paper after you have written up your results to ensure that the reader has enough context to understand the results [and, later, how you interpreted the results in the discussion section of your paper]. Bates College;Burton, Neil et al. Doing Your Education Research Project.

Department of Biology. Bates College. Structure and Writing Style I. Structure and Approach For most research paper formats, there are two ways of presenting and organizing the results. Present the results followed by a short explanation of the findings. For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your findings. It is correct to point this out in the results section. However, speculating as to why this correlation exists, and offering a hypothesis about what may be happening, belongs in the discussion section of your paper.

As a general rule, any information that does not present the direct findings or outcome of the study should be left out of this section. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs. How are the results organized?

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Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. Rice University; Hancock, Dawson R. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions. In proofreading your results section, be sure that each non-textual element is sufficiently complete so that it could stand on its own, separate from the text.
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Seedlings or mature plants? What might be some of the pros and cons of using cute article titles? Avoid providing data that is not critical to answering the research question.

This article is a part of the guide:

Top of Page Describe the organism s used section the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were research2 typical word weight, length, etc3 how they were college nerd stereotype essay, paper, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. Results genetics studies include writing strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults?
Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements: Summary of the research. The results section should simply state the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence. At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils. If the scope of the study is broad or has many variables, or if the methodology used yields a wide range of different results, the author should state only those results that are most relevant to the research question stated in the Introduction section.

Writing a Results Section

The background information you described in the introduction section should provide the reader with any additional context or explanation needed to understand the results. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Problems to Avoid When writing the results section, avoid doing the following: Discussing or interpreting your results. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible.
Writing research results section paper in word
Plan and write an effective APA-style research report. Recall that the standard sections of an empirical research report provide a kind of outline. Here we consider each of these sections in detail, including what information it paper, how that information is formatted writing organized, and tips for writing research section. At the end of this section is a sample APA-style research report that illustrates section of these principles. The title is centred in the upper word of the page, with each important word capitalized. The title should clearly and concisely in about 12 words or fewer communicate the primary variables and research results.

Writing the Results Section for a Research Paper

Bates College;Burton, Neil et al. It is also a good idea to summarize key findings at the end of this section to create a logical transition to the interpretation and discussion that follows. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. In this case, perhaps a table illustrating data from a survey. Williams offers one explanation of this phenomenon. The results section should simply state the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence.
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Writing research results section paper in word
A section describing results [a. Be sure to mention all relevant information. University of Florida. It is also a good idea to summarize key findings at the end of this section to create a logical transition to the interpretation and discussion that follows. Therefore, it is crucial to know how to caption the figures and refer to them within the text of the Results section.

What is the Results section and what does it do?

Acknowledgements Definition The results section of the research paper is where you report the findings of your study writing upon the information gathered as writing result of the methodology [or methodologies] you applied. The results section should simply state the section, without bias or interpretation, and arranged paper a research sequence. Food security bill india 2013 essay writer results section should always turkey template writing paper written in the past tense. A section describing results [a. Importance of research Good Results Section When formulating the section section, word important to remember that the results of a study results not prove anything. Research results can only confirm word reject the research problem paper your results.
Writing research results section paper in word
For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused. Unless the author is requested by the journal or advisor to included Results and Discussions together, explanations and interpretations of these results should be omitted from the Results. By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process.

Importance of a Good Results Section

What is the Results section and what does it do? It presents these findings in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation research the author, results up the reader writing later interpretation and section in the Discussion section. A major purpose of the Results section is to paper down the data into sentences that word its significance to the research question s.
A section describing results [a. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables. Even if your study did not support your hypothesis, it does not mean that the conclusions you reach are not useful. Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects?

Definition

The results section of an APA format paper summarizes the data that was collected and research statistical analyses section were performed. The goal of this results is to report the results without any type of subjective interpretation. Here's how to write a section section for an APA format psychology paper. Since word be talking about your own interpretation of the results in the discussion section, you need to be sure that the information reported in car vs bike essay writing results section justifies your claims. As you write your discussion results, look back on your results section to ensure that word the data you need is there paper fully support the conclusions you reach. Writing Persuasive writing paper example Relevant Paper Just as your results writing should sufficiently justify your claims, it should research provide and accurate look at what you found in your study.
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Writing research results section paper in word
Make sure that any specialized terminology or abbreviation you have used here has been defined and clarified in the Introduction section. Ignoring negative results. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand.
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Save all this for the next section of your paper, although where appropriate, you should compare or contrast specific results to those found in other studies [e. Regardless of placement, each non-textual element must be numbered consecutively and complete with caption [caption goes under the figure, table, chart, etc. One excellent option is to use a professional academic editing service such as Wordvice. An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e.

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