Type your last name, followed by a space, before the page number fig. Do not use the abbreviation p. Your writing program will probably allow you to create a running head of this kind that appears automatically on every page. Some teachers prefer that no running head appear on the first page. The running head of a research paper. Placement of the List of Works Cited The list of works cited appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes.
Begin the list on a new page. The list contains the same running head as the main text. The page numbering in the running head continues uninterrupted throughout.
For example, if the text of your research paper including any endnotes ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page Center the title, Works Cited, an inch from the top of the page fig. If the list contains only one entry, make the heading Work Cited. Double-space between the title and the first entry. Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines half an inch from the left margin.
This format is sometimes called hanging indention, and you can set your writing program to create it automatically for a group of paragraphs. Although it is not wrong to leave two spaces after a period, it is quite acceptable nowadays to leave only one space after each punctuation mark. However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op.
Use the width of your thumb as a rough guide. Your instructor may give you a choice to indent or not to indent your paragraphs. No matter whichever one you choose to use, you must be consistent throughout your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.
Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.
Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. Revise your outline and draft Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline.
Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar checker such as Edubirdie.
Checklist ONE: Is my thesis statement concise and clear? Use median and interpercentile range to report skewed data. For numbers, use two significant digits unless more precision is necessary 2. Never use percentages for very small samples e.
However, remember that most journals offer the possibility of adding Supporting Materials, so use them freely for data of secondary importance.
In this way, do not attempt to "hide" data in the hope of saving it for a later paper. You may lose evidence to reinforce your conclusion. If data are too abundant, you can use those supplementary materials.
Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. Number these sub-sections for the convenience of internal cross-referencing, but always taking into account the publisher's Guide for Authors.
For the data, decide on a logical order that tells a clear story and makes it and easy to understand. Generally, this will be in the same order as presented in the methods section.
An important issue is that you must not include references in this section; you are presenting your results, so you cannot refer to others here. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. This is because it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data.
Take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the Discussion is weak. You need to make the Discussion corresponding to the Results, but do not reiterate the results. Here you need to compare the published results by your colleagues with yours using some of the references included in the Introduction. Never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better.
Take into account the following tips: 1. Avoid statements that go beyond what the results can support. Avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant". Avoid sudden introduction of new terms or ideas; you must present everything in the introduction, to be confronted with your results here.
Speculations on possible interpretations are allowed, but these should be rooted in fact, rather than imagination. To achieve good interpretations think about: How do these results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section?
Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies. If your results were unexpected, try to explain why Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? Explain what is new without exaggerating 5.
In this section, avoid adding comments, results, and discussion, which is a common error. It is your first and probably only opportunity to attract the reader's attention. We are all flooded by publications, and readers don't have time to read all scientific production. Any run-on or unfinished sentences? Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. Here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them: Example 1 Original title: Preliminary observations on the effect of salinity on benthic community distribution within a estuarine system, in the North Sea Revised title: Effect of salinity on benthic distribution within the Scheldt estuary North Sea Comments: Long title distracts readers.
Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format printed, online, e-books etc. Live Support 4. It is your first and probably only opportunity to attract the reader's attention. You must be accurate, using the words that convey the precise meaning of your research. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?
Also, some institutes include the number of publications of the organization, e. If you are NOT indenting, you will start each paragraph flush to the left margin. It gives key results but minimizes experimental details. In this section, avoid adding comments, results, and discussion, which is a common error. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader s at the end of the paper? However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op.
Do a spell check. For example, if the text of your research paper including any endnotes ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. Do not justify the lines of text at the right margin; turn off any automatic hyphenation feature in your writing program. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported?